The concept of landscape design can be a little overwhelming, even for those with landscaping experience. It's one thing to know how to plant something and help it grow, but it's something entirely different to design exactly what you want out of a small area or an entire backyard. With so many ideas and choices available, it's important to come up with a landscape design plan that fits your imagination while taking into account the conditions and environment of your space.
Landscape Design Goals and Ideas
According to an interview with landscape designer Charles King Sadler in Fine Homebuilding, the first step to a successful landscape design is to determine your goals along with the requirements of the area, such as shade, flowers, etc. It's important to have a clear idea of what you are trying to accomplish with the landscape design of your outdoor space—and have an idea of what focal points you're trying to draw the eye toward.
Are you thinking of a colorful flower garden or the landscape near a deck or patio area where you can enjoy your morning coffee or entertain friends and family? Or maybe you are hoping to grow your own food with a vegetable garden or have a combination of flowers and edible plants. Or perhaps you're trying to add some curb appeal to your front yard before you sell your home.
There are so many options that it can quickly become overwhelming, so you'll want to do some research and come up with a solid plan rather than taking on your design haphazardly, planting things sporadically and not having an overall goal. Sources of ideas for your outdoor space are plentiful, including online resources such as Pinterest and gardening websites. Other options include taking a look at examples of beautiful landscape in your neighborhood, going on garden tours and looking through books and magazines that you can most likely find at your local library.
Consider Your Landscape
Deciding what you want is one important step when designing your landscape. Deciding where you want it is another. Once you choose the area you'd like to landscape, study the natural conditions. Is it level or sloped? Does it get full sunlight, or is it shaded for a large portion of the day? If you are planning to build a patio or deck, you'll probably want some shade, and the amount of sunlight will determine what types of plants will grow best in the area.
Other things for which to look include the soil, as a sandy area will make it difficult for most plants to thrive. Having a soil analysis done will help you decide which plants will grow best in a given location. Wind direction and drainage issues are also important. Some plants will thrive in a wet area, while others do well with less water and more sunshine.
You'll also want to take where you live into account. A home in New England will experience very different weather than one located in the South. The conditions will determine what outdoor areas will work and will help you choose the plants that will grow best in your landscaped area.
If possible, try to obtain a property plot plan to give you a bird's-eye view of the size and shape of your property, including driveways, fences and outdoor buildings like sheds. Viewing your property in this way will give you a whole new perspective on the best area for your landscape design project and will help you decide on the right size and shape for your design. If you can't find an official plot plan, you can make your own property drawings with graph paper and use them to create bubble diagrams to explore your ideas on paper.
Landscape Design Elements
Landscape design is part creativity and part science. The creativity requires only your imagination and an eagerness to expand your artistic side, but the science part requires a little bit of learning. Much like children study sentence structure when learning to read and write, a DIY landscape designer will be far more successful at creating an attractive space if he learns the five basic elements of landscape design.
The five elements of landscape design are color, form, line, texture and scale. You could spend months studying the uses of color in landscape design, but what it comes down to is using complementary colors in your design to create the perfect look and feel for a given area. Form is the use of different shapes and sizes of trees, leaves and shrubs to create an overall attractive pattern that doesn't clash.
Line is the way plants and borders are arranged to create lineal patterns that draw a viewer's eyes to different areas of the landscape. Texture is how the different textures on leaves and flowers can add interest and variety to your outdoor space. Scale refers to how the size and shape of your landscaped area and its individual pieces relate to each other and their surroundings. Everything should be in balance. Examples of scale problems would be a small garden bed in a very large area or a monstrous oak tree next to a small house.
Sketch Your Landscape Ideas
While you can probably picture in your head the way you want your landscape to look when you are finished, putting it down on paper is always a good idea before making any major design decisions or breaking ground. Viewing your ideas on paper can help you see any flaws in your design that may not have occurred to you before, and it can also trigger your imagination and creativity during the design process. While drawing, you may even decide to develop both a short-term and long-term design plan for your area.
The drawing doesn't need to be fancy. Sketching it can be exactly that — a sketch of the area. If you are a talented artist or just someone who likes to draw or color, this can be a fun project using graph paper and a pencil or colored pencils. If drawing isn't your thing, there are many landscape design software programs available. Some of these programs are more expensive than others, but with so many available, it won't be difficult to find one with which you are comfortable at a price you can afford. There are also a handful of free landscape design tools that meet many homeowners' needs.
Selecting Plants and Materials
The basic steps of landscape design include determining your goals, identifying areas for changes and upgrades and studying your landscape to determine what will work best in each location or microclimate. Then, it's time for one more important step — selecting the plants and other supplies to complete your project. A lot of the research can be started online or with gardening books and magazines, where you can find the size of the plants in which you are interested, the best location and conditions for a plant and how big it can be expected to grow.
The best way to choose your plants is to visit a nursery. Viewing something in person is different than seeing it on a page or screen and can give you a clearer idea of the size and texture of each flower and shrub, which will help with texture, scale and flow. Colors look different in person too. A local nursery can also tell you what plants are available in your area in case you need to make slight changes to your design and also what plants grow best for the specific climate and conditions of your area.
Gary Sprague is a retired master plumber who now works as a writer. He lives with his family in Maine.