Convection and conduction ovens both cook food, but use very different heating methods to achieve the same goal. Understanding the properties of convection and conduction is important when considering these types of ovens.
Convection is the movement of heat through an area by moving the air. Convection ovens have fans that circulate heat evenly throughout the interior of the oven.
A convection oven heats food more evenly throughout the entire oven, and it is much easier to clean the interior if food is spilled inside the oven.
Conduction ovens have a heat source located in the bottom or back of the oven that radiates heat out. This causes heat to build up near the top of the oven, due to the properties of heat that cause it to rise.
Conduction ovens often heat food unevenly because of the way heat is distributed by the system. Food cooks more slowly in a conduction oven because of this.
There are many types of convection and conduction ovens that should be reviewed before making a final purchase, as some ovens are better suited for household cooking than others.