The growth and development of flowers occurs over several weeks from the germination of seeds planted in a ground or container to the time in which flowers bloom. The entire process happens in about five stages for most flowers. Although flower species have varying bloom periods, the general growth and development process is basically the same for all flowers. Moderate variations in the length of time of certain stages may differ by flower species.
A Sprout Is Born
The seed begins the germination process during the first five days after being planted. During day 3 of the initial growth and development stage, imbibition begins as the dry seed takes in water from the ground. Next, the root emerges from the seed coat on or about day 4. On day 5, the root begins to extend and develops a root system at one end while a stem forms at the other end. The stem starts the process of making its way upward and eventually past the soil's surface.
Stage 2 is the stage when a flower's leaves develop. Leaf development usually begins on day 6 and continues to day 26. Leaves begin as tiny rosettes (leaf buds). As the stem begins growing leaves, the development of a flower's primary root structure also culminates usually sometime after day 14. Even though leaf growth does not officially happen until stage 3, the first leaf buds may begin growing after day 18 and continue until day 26.
A New Leaf on Life
Leaf growth overlaps slightly between stages 2 and 3 as buds evolve into new leaf growth. But stage 3 officially marks the entire leaf growth period at around day 19. During this stage, all of the leaf buds grow until each one reaches full maturity at about day 29. It's also possible for stage 4 to begin during the latter part (day 26) of the leaf growth stage.
Beginning of the Blosom
Day 26 is the day in which most flowers experience inflorescence emergence. In other words, flower buds start appearing on the stem, signifying stage 4 of development. It often occurs toward the end of stage 3 leaf growth; however, it is treated as a separate stage because the period indicates the growth and development exclusively of flowers.
Stage 5 commences the flower production phase. On approximately day 31, the first flower bud opens. Additional flower buds continue opening throughout a roughly 18-day bloom period until day 49 at which point flower production typically ends.