Building a septic drain field is time-consuming but pays off in the long run. Septic tanks last from 15 to 30 years. Unfortunately, drain fields, also known as leach fields, do not last that long. If placed in an area with good ground absorption, a drain field can last up to 10 years. Drain fields can consist of four sections 25 feet long or two sections 50 feet long.
Check with your local county office and health department to determine if a permit is required or if the health department must inspect the drain field while it is being built or after it is finished.
Check the soil to determine its absorption capacity. Soil tests can generally be done by the local Department of Agriculture office for a small fee. A drain field should not be placed in an area that has poor drainage. A septic drain field should be 10 feet from the home or any body of water, and 10 feet from gardens and edible plants.
Dig the trenches. Each drain-field trench should be at least 3 to 4 feet wide and 3 to 4 feet deep. There should be at least 100 feet of drain field for a 1,000-gallon septic tank. This can be accomplished by making four trenches 25 feet long or two trenches 50 feet long. The trenches should be at a slight downward slant of no more than ¼ inch per 8 feet of pipe. Too much of a downward slope could cause drainage problems because the waste could pool at the end of the trench and cause a backup in your septic tank.
Place a thick layer of gravel at least 1 foot deep along the entire length of the trench. One and a half feet of gravel would be better. Place the perforated pipe into the trench on top of the gravel and, using a clamp, attach the pipe to the septic tank drain.
Place another half-inch of gravel on top of the perforated pipe and some along the sides of the pipe. Place the thin cloth over the gravel to prevent loose dirt from getting into the rocks. Place the dirt that had previously been removed from the trench back into the trench. One week later, after the dirt has settled a bit, put some more dirt on top of the trench to level the trenches out and prevent rainwater from pooling in the trench.