Tall, crowded bamboo stems provide an effective privacy screen that suits Asian-style and contemporary gardens. Bamboo plants are perennial evergreens that belong to the grass family (Poaceae), and varieties are divided into running bamboos and clumping bamboos. Running bamboos are invasive, but clumping bamboos spread slowly. Deep barriers placed in soil prevent running bamboos from spreading, but running bamboos' requirement for those deep barriers means that clumping bamboos are better, less labor-intensive selections for growing as privacy screens.

Clumping bamboos that grow well as privacy screens include fountain bamboo (Fargesia nitida), which is hardy in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 5 through 9, and noble bamboo (Himalayacalamus falconeri 'Damarapa'), which is hardy in USDA zones 10 through 11.

Selecting Growing Areas

Bamboo produces dense, healthily growing stems when it is located in partially shaded or sunny spots and somewhat acidic, loamy soil. Fountain bamboo requires a partially shady location, particularly one shaded from hot afternoon sunlight. Noble bamboo needs partial shade or four to eight hours of direct sunlight per day. Moist, freely draining soil provides the best results for both varieties.

Spacing the Bamboos

Clumping bamboos spread slowly. So space them close together for a fast screening effect. Fountain bamboo grows 10 to 15 feet tall and wide, and noble bamboo grows 15 to 30 feet tall and 6 to 10 feet wide. Both plants may take several years to reach their final growing widths. Space clumping bamboo plants so that 6 to 12 inches of space is between the edge of one plant and the edge of the next plant.

Watering the Bamboos

Newly planted bamboos need plenty of water, but established plants tolerate some drought. Bamboo plants that were growing in 5-gallon containers before being planted in the ground need 1 gallon of water twice each week during dry, warm weather. If the weather is hot and windy, they may need more frequent watering, up to once per day.

Water established bamboos when their soil is dry to a depth of 2 inches. Apply enough water to moisten the soil to the depth of the plants' root balls.

Applying Fertilizer

Bamboos grow best with regular fertilizer applications. Ready-to-use, slow-release, 12-4-8 fertilizer granules supply their nutrient needs throughout the growing season. Sprinkle the granules at a rate of 4 tablespoons per 4 square feet over the root zones, avoiding getting the fertilizer on bamboo stems. Water the fertilized soil. Fertilize bamboos' soil every three months while the plants grow actively.