Head lice live only on blood drawn from the scalp. For that reason, lice that have become dislodged from the scalp or hair have a relatively short life expectancy. Nevertheless, lice do survive on a variety of surfaces long enough to find a new host or to re-infest an old one.
If you find yourself dealing with lice, turn your attention first toward treating the head and scalp, but do not overlook simple measures to eliminate lice and nits from any surface that may touch your head. One of these surfaces is your bed pillow.
Treating your Pillows
Vacuum your pillow case, pillow, sheets, mattress, and blanket or other bed covering using the upholstery attachment on your vacuum. There is no need to introduce chemicals into the vacuum bag and thus into your household air. The lice that have been removed this way will die quickly.
Launder everything that is washable, including pillows, using ordinary detergent and setting your water temperature to hot. Heat kills lice. Bleach only if you do so ordinarily.
Dry pillows and other bedding on the "high" or "hot" setting of your dryer. If you believe that your pillows are not washable, still place them in the dryer for at least a half hour. The heat will kill any remaining lice or nits.
Seal your pillows in a plastic bag, using a twist tie for 24 hours in order to insure that no remaining lice or nits can survive.
Repeat this process daily until all signs of lice infestation on the scalp have disappeared.