If you decide you'd prefer a shirt, rug or comforter to be a different color, you don't necessarily need to replace it with a new one. Fabric dyes work quite well when it comes to altering the hue of a clothing item or piece of home decor. Certain fabrics will respond better than others to dyes. Be sure to check their care instructions to determine what they are comprised of before proceeding.
Which Fabrics Can Be Dyed?
Generally speaking, natural fibers are much easier to dye than synthetic ones. Cotton, linen, wool and silk are all natural materials and should respond well to dye. If you are hoping to alter man-made fabrics, beware that results may be less than ideal. Some large or stationary items, like carpets, require a slightly different process and a specialized type of dye.
How to Dye Fabrics
You don't need to start with fabric that has been bleached white. In fact, a colored item can take on a rich, deep hue when you use another color of dye to enhance it. However, if you wish for your item to appear only the color of the dye itself, you should bleach the item before you begin.
Before dyeing your fabric, but after bleaching, you will need to clean it. If the item is new and can be washed, do so to remove any chemicals added by the manufacturer. Hand washing will suffice for items that are delicate.
Next, select a location to dye your fabric. An outdoor spot is ideal if weather permits. Basements, garages and other places where it's okay if things get a bit messy are also good choices. As an extra precaution, lay down a dropcloth, tarp or used sheet to protect the ground or floor.
Wear rubber gloves and clothes that can get dirty when dyeing fabrics. Fill a basin (like a sink or bucket) with boiling water in the amount specified on your dye instructions. If you are dyeing wool, the water should be warm, rather than hot. Add your dye to the basin. Feel free to experiment with different quantities of dye or a combination of colors to create unique effects. If you are working with cotton or linen, you may also wish to add salt to the water to help the colors set. Wool and silk accept dyes better if you use vinegar instead of salt.
Next, wet your fabric using tap water or your washing machine. Using a large spoon, stick or paddle, move the fabric around in the basin containing your dye mixture. Stir the mixture for up to fifteen minutes or until it is slightly darker than you'd like it to ultimately appear. Periodically use your stirrer to slightly lift the fabric out of the basin so that you can keep an eye on its color. Some of the dye will fade, hence the goal of aiming a bit darker than you ultimately prefer.
Once you have achieved the color you desire, remove your fabric and rinse it in warm water. Gradually change the water temperature as you rinse until the water is cool. Continue to rinse your fabric until the water runs clear. Promptly clean out your sink and the basin you used for dyeing.
Next, wash your fabric on a cold cycle in a washing machine using a mild laundry detergent. Do not use fabric softener. Dry the item according to its care instructions.
How to Dye a Carpet
The above approach is suitable for most fabrics that will fit in an available basin. However some items, like carpets, are permanently fixed within your home and cannot be moved. Additionally, it is best to dye rugs using a specially formulated type of coloring. Nylon and wool rugs are receptive to carpet dyes, while other materials tend not to be.
Before you begin dyeing your carpet, remove all furniture and baseboards from the room. If you wish, you may tape off the edge of your rug so that dye does not get onto your walls. Vacuum your carpet thoroughly and considering steaming it before you begin.You should wear gloves and work clothes throughout the rug-dyeing process. Open windows to ventilate the area, as well.
Begin with a pH stabilizer, which you'll need to apply to your carpet before adding any coloring. This can help to equalize imperfections caused by years of use or things like professional or chemical cleaning.
Next, mix your carpet dye in a large bucket. Most dyes will require mixing in hot water, but follow the package instructions for best results.
Carpet dyes are typically sprayed on using a funnel and tube that come with the package. You may wish to test a small amount of dye in a corner of the room to gauge the sprayer's intensity and range before beginning.
For best results, start your project in the corner of the room farthest from the door. Spray a small area and use a carpet brush to rub the dye into the rug. Once you've completed one area, move on to the next. Continue with this approach until the entire carpet is coated.
Let your freshly dyed carpet dry for as long as specified by the dye manufacturer, usually at least one day, before replacing your furniture and baseboards.