Vacuum cleaners consist of dozens, sometimes hundreds of parts. While many of these components aren't vital to the mechanical operation of the vacuum cleaner itself (i.e. the wheels), knowing what parts of your vacuum cleaner are crucial to its operation is important to understand what has to be fixed if and when these machines do eventually break down.
Intake Port and Rotating Brush
The intake port and rotating brush work together to draw dust, dirt and other undesirables from the floor into the vacuum cleaner. Like many other parts of the vacuum, these are powered by the internal motor.
The internal fan, usually located behind the rotating brush in most vacuum cleaners, continues to guide the dirt and dust to the filter and dust bag/bin.
The motor is the heart of the vacuum cleaner, powering all of the belts and fans that keep the device running properly. Often when the motor burns out in a vacuum cleaner, the owner will have to replace the entire vacuum.
The filter in a vacuum cleaner is used to separate the heavy, solid objects from the dust. This is important to the regular function of the vacuum, as it helps prevent large objects from either breaking fan blades or punching holes in the dust bag.
The dust bag, which is often times not even a bag but a plastic bin, is where the vacuum deposits the trash that was picked off of the floor. Some vacuum models have the dust bag split into two sections -- one for solid items, the other for dust, dirt, paper, etc.
The power source, usually either a battery or a long cord that connects into a power outlet, is used to supply electricity to the unit as a whole.