Those people who enjoy gardening, whether indoors or outdoors, always enjoy watching their plants grow and reproduce. Most of the plants people normally grow in their homes and gardens are seed plants. These plants have five characteristics in common.
Seed plants all possess leaves in some pattern and configuration. Leaves vary widely in appearance and can be very small or very large. Leaves are part of the shoot system of the plant that is located aboveground. It is where photosynthesis, the conversion of light into sugars, takes place. Food is also stored in leaves and released as it is needed by the plant's cells. Plant hormone production also takes place in this upper shoot system of the plant, according to BiologyJunction.
Seed plants all have stems that help support the plant and hold the cells for photosynthesis, food and water transport, as well as cells for reproduction. Stems are where the flowers are located, which then turn into seeds that create more plants. Not all plants have visible flowers. Some flowers are very inconspicuous, but serve the same function for seed dispersal as more lush flowers.
All seed plants have a root system that helps to anchor the plant in place. Roots are generally underground structures that absorb water and nutrients from the soil and store it for later use as it is needed. Roots can spread broadly within the soil to absorb as much water and nutrition as possible. Generally, the larger the plant, the wider the root system will spread.
All seed plants produce seeds as a method of reproduction. Not all plants reproduce this way, however. Some plants, like mosses, use spores to grow into new environments. Though different types of seeds may look very different from one another, they all contain the same basic structures. Seeds all have an embryo, a food storage organ and a seed coat. Seeding is a very efficient way of creating more plants, which is why there are so many seed-type plants.
Plants require a vascular system to carry moisture and nutrients to all parts of the plant and to maintain its upright structure, according to EdHelper. Phloem is vascular tissue that carries food throughout the plant. Xylem is vascular tissue that carries water and nutrients to the plant cells. The vascular system is so important to the plant that damage to these tissues can cause its death.