Homes that use a private well must have a bladder pressure tank to provide water pressure in the home. Over time a well's bladder pressure tank can develop reduced pressure or lose pressure altogether and will sometimes have to be replaced. A tank can be pressurized first to see whether this solves water pressure problems. If not, there are other signs to look for to know whether the well water pressure tank should be replaced.
Flush a toilet in the house and have someone else stand near the well pump and listen to see how long the pump runs. If it keeps kicking on and off, then it may be trying to force water through to compensate for a failing bladder pressure tank.
Examine the bladder pressure tank for any leaks, cracks or visible problems. Older tanks are vulnerable to rusting and often wear out over time. Replace a pressure tank that has any leaks or visible damage.
Shut off the power to the well pump and look at the pressure switch to see whether the points of the switch are able to make a connection. If they are not connecting, the switch should be replaced.
Leave the power to the well pump off and attach a garden hose to the pressure tank drain. Allow the tank to drain completely.
Test the bladder pressure tank's air pressure by using a tire pressure gauge on the valve stem of the tank. Normally, a pressure tank's pressure should be between 35 and 40 PSI. If the level is lower than this, try adding pressure with an air compressor.
Turn the power to the well pump back on and turn on faucets in the home. After approximately 10 minutes, recheck the pressure in the pressure tank to see whether the pressure stayed in the proper range. If not, the tank probably should be replaced.