A monoculture is the raising of only one crop or product without using the land for other purposes, such as generally occurs in fields under modern agriculture techniques (see Reference 2). In a corn field, for example, corn is the single plant that is expected, tended and tolerated, with all other plants seen as weeds. While monoculture agriculture represents the vast majority of modern food production, the system has both advantages and disadvantages.
A monoculture field is a very simple system. Soil preparation, irrigation and chemical inputs can all be focused on the needs and preferences of a single plant species. This allows the field to be heavily specialized towards producing maximum yields for a specific crop. Pests and disease can be treated without considering the effects of the treatment on any other plants. The uniformity of a monoculture field is especially important in harvesting, since the desirable parts of a plant can be easily collected using straightforward techniques which would often be highly destructive to other crops sharing the same field.
Disease and Pests
Monoculture fields are vulnerable to widespread outbreaks of diseases and pests. If a particular disease can infect a single plant in a monoculture field, it can by extension infect every other plant in the field. An infected plant in this situation is surrounded by nothing but vectors for further infection. Likewise, if a pest is able to attack a plant in a monoculture, it is surrounded by other vulnerable plants, which can lead to a population explosion in short order.
A single plant species is unable to take full advantage of any environment, due to variables such as mineral and nutritional needs, root depth and metabolic byproducts. Planting a monoculture crop in the same area for extended periods depletes resources required by that plant species while neglecting available resources other plant species can take advantage of. Crop rotation can help mitigate this problem, but it often involves planting less profitable or lower yield crops, or leaving the land entirely fallow for entire growing seasons.
Monoculture crops do not provide a rich habitat for other flora and fauna. Other plants are undesirable by the definition of monoculture farming and are actively discouraged. Animals are presented with a uniform environment that may fulfill some of their requirements, but it may lack all the features of a habitat. In the case of widespread monoculture agriculture, this may lead to the extinction or relocation of entire species in certain areas.