Is a Rose a Gymnosperm or an Angiosperm?

Roses have a long history of human cultivation. Evidence suggests the ancient Chinese grew roses as far back as 3,000 B.C. People in the Roman Empire used the rose as a medical herb. During the 1600s, roses were even used as legal currency and in bartering, according to the University of Illinois Extension.

Roses form seeds inside an ovule.


Roses, the plants of the genus rosa, reproduce by generating seeds contained in a bowl-shaped fruit called a rose hip. The rose hip actually holds a small shell called an anchene. The anchene, commonly mistaken for the seed itself, envelops a single rose seed. Roses therefore fall under the angiosperm classification, since they protect their seeds within a fruit, or in this case, two fruits.


One of the primary ways scientists by which classify plants is how the plant reproduces itself. Plants that reproduce themselves by creating seeds that grow inside of an ovule are called angiosperms. The ovule typically develops into a fruit that protects the seed from harm. The majority of the world's plant life, an estimated 80 percent of all the known species, reproduce from seeds using this method. Angiosperms come in an enormous variety of shapes and sizes, from flowering plants less than 1 inch long to trees that grow to 100 feet high.


Gymnosperms, in contrast to angiosperms, produce seeds that are not enclosed inside a fruit. These are called "naked seeds" because they have little protection from the elements. Instead of a fruit, gymnosperms typically produce cones. A cone carries a seed between its scales, and as it matures, the scales expand, releasing the seed. Gymnosperms are not as diverse as angiosperms, and trees account for the majority of the group.

Other Methods

Although roses belong to the angiosperm group and reproduce naturally by means of seeds, human beings have cultivated the plants for many years and reproduce them using other methods. Most modern garden roses are hybrids created by grafting cuttings onto rootstock. You can also plant cuttings of some types of roses without grafting them. The best chance for success comes when taking a cutting of a stem's tip just as the hip begins to form, advises Texas A&M University.