With only two moving parts, a hand-powered well pump is a simple machine to troubleshoot and repair. Hand well pumps date back more than 100 years. A once common sight in American kitchens, these simple machines are dependable and require little in the way of maintenance. Their main limitation is an inability to efficiently lift water more than 25 feet deep.
Attach a pipe wrench to the base of the pump and use it to remove the pump from the well pipe. Removing the pump from the well eliminates the possibility of dropping small parts from the pump into the well shaft.
Use an adjustable wrench to loosen and remove the bolt holding the pump handle to the lifting rod.
Pull the lifting rod completely out of the pump housing.
Remove the mounting nut holding the cup leather in place on the bottom of the lifting rod using the wrench. The cup leather acts as a gasket to hold suction in the pump's lifting cylinder. This is usually the only part of the pump to wear out. Use a screwdriver to remove the steel plate that holds the cup leather in place.
Remove the cup leather from the lifting rod. Cup leathers will deteriorate over time; scrape off leather pieces from the upper and lower retaining plates on the lifting rod. Clean both plates thoroughly before installing a new cup leather.
Place the new cup leather in position on the lifting rod. The upper edges of the cup must be facing the top of the lifting rod for the well pump to function.
Replace the bottom plate and retaining nut on the bottom of the lifting rod and reassemble the pump.
Wrap two layers of plumber's tape around the threads on the top of the well shaft or coat the threads with pipe compound. Thread the pump onto the well shaft and tighten in place with a pipe wrench.