You need to prune overgrown roses (Rosa spp.) as these are not healthy plants. If you have a rose you've been neglecting, pruning it properly can help restore it to good health. This will ensure you have beautiful roses for many years.
Pruning Overgrown Roses
Pruning a rose plant should be done in late winter to early spring. When it comes to how and exactly when to prune a rose, however, the type of plant you have matters. Roses are hardy in U.S. Department of Agriculture zones 2 through 10, depending on species and cultivar.
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You want to prune about two weeks after the last hard frost around the time the forsythias bloom. Pruning should help the plant get more air and light. Using a set of sharp pruning shears that you wipe with isopropyl alcohol before making each cut, make your cuts at a 45-degree angle 1/4 inch above a bud or eye that faces outward. Make sure your cut angles away from the bud.
Remove any dead canes or canes that are shriveled, dark brown or black, as well as thin, weak canes that are no wider than a pencil. If you notice suckers emerging from the ground, remove them. To prevent cane borers, seal the cuts with white glue.
Types of Roses
To help your roses get the most out of pruning, it's best to determine what type of rose you have. If your plant is a hybrid tea, floribunda, miniature or grandiflora rose, these roses flower best on new wooden canes. So for these plants, you'll want to remove dead, small and weak canes. Leave three to five healthy canes around the plant and prune those.
For shrub roses, look for the oldest canes and remove one-third of them. Repeat this each spring, making note of the oldest canes. This will help your plant produce vigorous flowers year after year.
Prune old garden roses much like shrub roses, although for those that flower once, prune after the plant's flowering season is finished. Climbing roses should be pruned in early spring by removing old wood, while rambling roses should be pruned after flowering.
Best Pruning Methods
The way you make your cuts counts when pruning roses. Angling your cut 45 degrees on the exterior of the cane, sloped down and away, allows the rose's natural sap to seal your cut while still allowing the cane to develop new growth.
If you are looking for the bud while the plant is still dormant, it's usually identified by a slight swelling above the cane surface. If you're pruning after the rose has flowered, you can use the foliage to guide you to make your cut 1/4 inch above the bud.
Location of each cut is important. Cuts any closer to the bud may damage it. Cuts any higher may leave the plant vulnerable to pests. As far as checking for pests, you should make a point to check your roses yearly for winter pest damage.
More on Pruning
You may also need a pruning saw to remove large, old canes. Lopping shears are good to cut through thicker canes. You'll also want a good pair of gardening gloves that will not allow the thorns to penetrate your gloves. Gauntlet gloves that protect your arm up to the elbow are useful when pruning roses.
For cleanup, remove the dead foliage and canes. Refrain from putting them in the compost heap and put them in the trash instead. That's because there's a chance any dead rose foliage could be diseased and could contaminate your compost pile. Remove all the debris around your rose plants. Wipe your pruning tools with a rag lightly dusted with oil to prevent rust before storing them.