When the smoke detector starts to beep and there is no fire in sight, the most likely problem is a weak battery. But after a new battery goes in and the annoying beeps continue, you will need to look a little deeper into the problem. At worst, you may need to replace your smoke detector, but there are a few more things you can try before going that far.
Clean the Smoke Detector
Dust, hair, dirt and other particles that float around in the air will, over time, accumulate on the smoke detector and, more importantly, inside the smoke detector. These foreign particles, if enough are present, can trick the detector every now and then into thinking that smoke is present and trip the alarm. Even if the grime doesn't trip the alarm, the buildup of foreign particles within the smoke detection mechanism can reduce the effectiveness of the smoke detector in a real emergency, so some models will sound the alarm briefly just to let you know to clean the alarm. If you suspect this may be the cause, consult your manual for any specific instructions on how to clean the detector; however, most detectors can be cleaned simply by running a vacuum cleaner over the unit to remove any dust or dirt.
False Alarms From Smoke
The false alarms may be triggered by other sources of smoke, such as smoke from a nearby fireplace or stove. If you have been cooking recently or have been using your fireplace, either of these may be the source of your problem. With a fireplace in particular, if the damper is closed after the fire has gone out but before it has finished simmering, smoke may still be filling the house.
False Alarms Without Smoke
That smoke sets off the smoke detector is obvious, but there are a few other problems that can generate false alarms that aren't so obvious. For example, smoke alarms can mistake paint fumes for dangerous smoke, so you may get a few false alarms shortly after you have painted your home's interior. Smoke detectors can also mistake steam for smoke, so you may get a false alarm from a smoke detector near your bathroom after a very hot shower. Perhaps most counter-intuitive of all is that nearby fluorescent lighting can set off the smoke detector if it contains a heat sensor.
Replace the Smoke Detector
The smoke detector could simply be damaged. If nothing else works, and particularly if your detector is more than seven years old, you may need to put it out to pasture and obtain a new one. Many city fire departments will test and replace fire detectors free of charge as a public service.