Things You'll Need
12-4-12 or 15-5-15 fertilizer
Insecticidal soap spray
Growing a camellia bush in alkaline soil causes yellow leaves with green veins. Your local soil-testing agency can assess the pH balance of your soil and tell you if it's suitable for growing a camellia bush. Applying a 100-percent aluminium sulfate product at a rate of 1 pound for every 3 feet of the bush's height can temporarily lower the pH of the soil. Spread the aluminium sulfate beneath the bush's branches, avoiding the trunk, and water in thoroughly, or apply according to the manufacturer's instructions. Alternatively, grow a camellia bush in a container. Camellias grow best in sites that don't receive early morning or late afternoon sun. Other types of camellia include tea-oil camellia (Camellia oleifera), which grows in USDA zones 7 through 10, and furfuracea camellia (Camellia furfuracea), which is hardy in USDA zones 8 through 10. Tea-oil camellia grows 10 to 20 feet tall and wide, and furfuracea camellia grows 6 to 9 feet tall and 4 to 7 feet wide. Both shrubs bear white winter blooms.
Don't fertilize a camellia bush in late summer or fall because this encourages new growth, which is vulnerable to cold damage.
A winter- and spring-flowering evergreen bush, camellia (Camellia spp.) belongs to a wide-ranging plant family. Japanese camellia (Camellia japonica), which is hardy in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 7 through 9, grows 7 to 12 feet tall and 5 to 10 feet wide, and sasanqua camellia (Camellia sasanqua), which is hardy in USDA zones 7 through 9, grows 4 to 15 feet tall, depending on the cultivar. Camellia thrives in well-drained soil rich in organic matter with a pH between 5 and 6.5 and in a partial shade site sheltered from strong winds.
Apply 1 inch of water to camellia every 10 days to two weeks during dry weather and 1 inch of water every week while the bush is flowering. Avoid saturating the soil because this can cause root rot.
Spread a 2- to 3-inch layer of leaf mold, compost, well-rotted manure or other organic matter around camellia and top up the mulch when it thins out.
Fertilize a camellia bush with a 12-4-12 or 15-5-15 fertilizer applied at a rate of 1/2 pound per 100 square feet in spring or early summer.
Prune camellia in late winter or early spring with pruning shears sterilized by wiping the blades with rubbing alcohol. Prune dead or diseased growth and remove stems that spoil the overall shape of the bush, cutting where the stems join the rest of the bush. Sterilize the pruning shears again when finished.
Examine camellia for signs of tea scale, which are 1.5-mm yellow, white or brown, shell-like insects that cluster on the undersides of leaves, sometimes giving a fuzzy appearance. Other common pests on a camellia bush are aphids, which cluster on shoot tips and the undersides of leaves, and spider mites, which cause a rusty, speckled effect on leaves. Prune affected leaves and shoots, sterilizing the shears between cuts by dipping them in a solution of 1 part household bleach and 9 parts water, to control moderate infestation. Spray heavy infestations with a ready-to-use insecticidal soap spray on a cloudy day, covering all plant parts, and spray again twice a week or weekly as required.
Check camellia for signs of disease, such as dead twigs and branches with cankers or gray blotches and brown flowers. Other symptoms include leaf yellowing, poor growth and wilting and abnormally large, thick, light green, white or pink new shoots or leaves. Prune diseased plant parts, cutting at a healthy leaf bud 3 or 4 inches below the affected area and sterilizing pruning shears between cuts to provide control. Remove all plant debris from beneath the bush, replace the mulch and improve the growing conditions. Avoid wetting plant foliage when watering.
- University of Florida IFAS Extension: Camellias at a Glance
- North Carolina State University: Camellia Culture
- Clemson Cooperative Extension: Camellia
- Missouri Botanical Garden: Camellia Japonica
- Floridata: Camellia Sasanqua
- Missouri Botanical Garden: Camellia Oleifera
- Missouri Botanical Garden: Camellia Furfuracea
- Clemson Cooperative Extension: Camellia Diseases & Insect Pests
- American Camellia Society
A graduate of Leeds University, Jenny Green completed Master of Arts in English literature in 1998 and has been writing about travel, gardening, science and pets since 2007. Green's work appears in Diva, Whole Life Times, Listverse, Earthtimes, Lamplight, Stupefying Stories and other websites and magazines.